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BIOL 115: Organismal Biology - Wisenden: Primary Literature Assignment from Dr. Wisenden

List 10 examples each of primary sources and of secondary sources


Primary Sources

Secondary Sources
































  1. What are three ways to distinguish peer-reviewed sources from non peer-reviewed sources?








  1. What are the four major questions addressed in a scientific report and their corresponding sections?









  1. Write a citation to the following works in a sentence as it would appear in the introduction or discussion of a report, and type out how these citations should be formatted in the references cited section or a report. To get all of the information you will need for the citations you will have to access the MSUM library.
    1. The paper by Sherwin et al. (2015) entitled Tracking invasion and invasiveness in Queensland fruit flies: from classical genetics to ‘omics’.
    2. The paper by Ott and Hartnett (2015) entitled Vegetative reproduction and bud bank dynamics…”
    3. The paper by Dowle et al. (2014) entitled Morphological differentiation despite gene flow in an endangered grasshopper.
    4. The paper by Anisimova (2015) entitled Darwin and Fisher meet at biotech: on the potential of computational molecular evolution in industry
    5. The paper by Hafer and Milinski (2015) entitled When parasites disagree: evidence for parasite-induced sabotage of host manipulation
    6. The paper by Eizaguirre and Baltazar-Soares (2014) entitled on evolutionary conservation published in the peer-reviewed journal Evolutionary Adaptations.
    7. The paper by Toh and Allen-Vercoe (2015) published in the peer-reviewed journal Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease.
    8. The paper by Kudrin et al. (2015) on soil nematodes and stable isotope analysis published in the peer-reviewed journal Soil Biology and Biochemistry.
    9. The paper by McFadden and Lusk (2015) published in the peer-reviewed journal Food Policy.
    10. The paper by Dong and Yoonsoo (2015) published in the peer-reviewed journal BMC Bioinformatics.


  1. Structure analysis of a scientific article. Download Lonnstedt et al. (2013) from D2L.
    1. Make an outline of the introduction by listing the main topic of the first sentence of each paragraph in the introduction. Note how the introduction transitions from the large general phenomenon under study to the specific study question tested in the article.
    2. Note the organizational structure of the materials and methods by listing the section headings in the materials and methods. Note also that the structure of the materials and methods is mirrored in the results section.
    3. What is the first sentence of the discussion section? Make an outline of the discussion section by listing the main topic of the first sentence in each paragraph. Note how the discussion section transitions from the specific results of the study back to the general theoretical framework.
    4. How many different sources from the primary literature are cited by the authors?